SCP Syntax Tutorial

The scp command is available on UNIX based systems (including Linux and Mac OS) and allows files to be copied to, from, or between different hosts. It uses secure shell or ssh for data transfer and provides the same authentication and same level of security as ssh.

Here you’ll find a document outlining the syntax required when using the scp command.

Firefox Add-on Tutorial

Here you will find a tutorial explaining how to download, install and customise an Add-on on the Firefox web browser.

Click the Firefox logo below for the tutorial in PDF format.

The new version of Firefox (v.57 Quantum – released November 18 2017) will look slightly different but the functionality and installation of add-ons remains principally the same.


Web Page Certificates

Https is the secure version of the http protocol for connecting to web-servers.

Websites that use the https (hyper text transfer protocol secure) protocol provide an encrypted connection between your device and the web-server hosting the page you have requested.


However, just because you type in in to your browser bar for example, does not necessarily mean you are connected  to the real website.

This is because the address is converted to the IP address of the web-server hosting the page  by a service known as the Domain Name System or DNS.

This works like a phone book, so you type in a web address you want to visit and your DNS looks up the number or IP address of the appropriate web-server and retrieves the web page from the appropriate web-server for you.

If the DNS has been compromised or hijacked in anyway, when you type in, you are sent to the IP address of a rogue website that appears to be and looks like the real site.

The connection to the rogue server is still using https and displays a padlock icon but the attacker will have access to your data.

You can ensure that you are on the correct web page by examining  the servers Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Certificate the genuine version of which can only be displayed by the real web-server.

Follow these simple steps. The Firefox browser is used here, but all browsers will allow you to view the certificate of a connection using https:

Type in to your browers location bar


Your browser will connect to the web-server provided by the DNS and display a padlock icon. Notes in grey, Firefox has added https://www to the address you typed. Its in grey to clearly show what has been added.


Click on the padlock icon


Click ‘More Information’


Click ‘View Certificate’


The SSL certificate will open. Check that the web address against Common Name (CN) is the same as the address in the location bar in the browser. If it is, you are connected to the real website with a secure https connection and your data is safe.

If the Common Name (CN) displayed differs in any way to what is in the location bar on your browser, there is a problem and you should not trust the website.


NB – The Common Name (CN) entry on the certificate only needs to match the domain of the website you have visited.

For example:

is fine, because the domain matches the Common Name (CN) in the certificate.

You may see messages like the ones below if  the web address does not match the Common Name (CN) in the certificate




Other browsers may display the padlock icon in a different location:


Hashing Tutorial

Click the fingerprint logo for a PDF tutorial document on hashing digital evidence in investigations.

You’ll need the Hash My Files software by Nirsoft for this tutorial. You can download  it for free by clicking here, if you don’t already have it.


Facebook Search Techniques

Click the Facebook logo below for a PDF tutorial on the basics of searching Facebook.

Remember, Facebook are constantly changing feature and functions, so some of the techniques here may not work properly or at all.

We will endeavour to keep this tutorial up to date.

You will need to be logged in to Facebook to follow this tutorial.